Sanctioned Load vs Connect Load vs Maximum Demand vs Diversity Factor

A society needs correct design for internal electrical distribution system. It also needs appropriate contractual load from the electric utility company. An inaccurate design may result in lower system reliability and lower contractual load may result in the penalties.

There are a lot of terms and a lot of technical jargon. The understanding of the same can be left to the experts in general. But there is no harm in getting to know the basic concepts as the experts are not always available.

How does a society decide the right connected load for itself.

There could be very detailed and involved calculations for the demand factor, diversity factor etc. to calculate the connected load.

There are however certain thumb rules to make us feel comfortable.

A society is built up of the individual loads such as residential loads, office loads, lifts, water pumps, lighting, sewage treatment plant, club, shops etc. All of them have a connected load.

A thumb rule is that the society should have approximately 50 % of the sum of the total individual loads as per the plan as the sanctioned load. The society however may not have all the units ready or developed. A society may go for a lesser load as connected load based on the operating /built units in a society. It must be said that there are always variations of 50 % factor. Typically, the builder/developer needs to plan the infrastructure as per the sanctioned load while build the infrastructure as per connected load.

The complications arise if the connected loads for the individual loads are increased or get violated which is very often the case as the societies get old (or if there are real design issues). Thus a society needs to keep on monitoring the maximum demand and average demand for each of the months.

Maximum demand is a peak demand in a month or in a year when for an instance the society load is maximum. You should be able to see it in your society electricity bill.

If the maximum demand in a year gets more than 70 % of the connected load; the society needs to take action on two fronts. The one is to review the connected load with SEB and get it modified. The second is to review internal distribution systems both at the individual loads as well as feeder and transformer level. A re-rating of these loads may be required and hardware changes may be required.

What can be done proactively by the societies?

First thing that the societies needs to have a good information architecture to monitor the data.

They should have a load forecasting done for the society to keep abreast of the increases and changes in the load pattern.

They should also consider in investing in an online data collection infrastructure at-least at the substation level.

We can help on all of these.

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